Fundamental to the study of management is an understanding of the goals and objectives of the organizations and the processes used to measure their accomplishment (Drucker 1954; Ansoff 1965; Hofer and schendel 197; Schendel and Hofer 1979; Andrew 1987)
Ansoff (1965) proposed that the ultimate measeure of organizational performance is return on investment. While this was argued to be the aim of the organization, Ansoff acknowledged that the organization was constrained by individual stakeholder objectives. As a consequence, the organization must also have non-economic objectives that lead to maximization of return on investment as constrained by stakeholder constraints on organizational flexibility. In contrast to drucker, Ansoff’s perspective can be seen as multi-constituency and one-dimensional. Although Ansoff Proposes one primary dimension of performance, he does propose that there are seveal sub-dimensions of that construct.
- Google Pict. Management (Accsess on December 30,2015)
- Carton, R.B. (2011). Organizational Measurement. http://www.Scribd.com (Diakses tanggal 30 Desember 2015).
CARTON, R.B. Organizational Measurement. 2011; Scribd.com. hlm.49